At the present moment, electric vehicles (EVs) circulate the world in millions and there are tens of thousands of charging stations meeting their needs. All major automobile, power, and energy sectors are learning to cope with the massive and increasing demand for electric car usage.
The goal is to integrate electric vehicles into electricity grids with immediate coordination and communication links between various mobility and energy entities and the charging management systems.
OCPP has been instrumental in this transition from minimizing local electricity networks to controlling thousands of charging stations worldwide. The IEC 63110, however, is the additional standard protocol required to facilitate bi-directional systems of charging in the future by merging OCPP with other front-end protocols.
What is OCPP Protocol?
Open communication protocols are rules or guidelines designed to facilitate effective interaction and data exchange between several connected entities.
Let’s break this down a bit!
The OCPP (Open Communication Protocol) is what you can describe as the middleman or the linking entities (communication system) between the conductive charging system or charging stations (charging station management systems (CSMS).
The linking entities can be divided into the front-end and back-end protocols. The front-end protocol is responsible for connecting the car, charging stations and sockets. The conductive charging system comprises an interactive system, secured data system and boarding charging equipment. The back-end protocol for OCPP links the charging station and the third party user.
The OCPP has the following features:
- Market Adoption
The openness of OCPP makes it possible for every type of electric vehicle and e-mobility entity to use the V2G protocol developmental process.
The interoperability of OCPP gives room for multiple systems to work concurrently without restriction. Maturity shows that OCPP protocols can be upgraded, used in real-time and has undergone several user testing. The fact that many users have adopted it shows the level of its market adoption.
IEC 63110 EV Charging Standard.
The IEC 63110 provides communication links for the conductive charging station and electric vehicles. IEC 63110 is also known as the protocol for the Management of Electric Vehicles charging and discharging infrastructures.
The IEC 63110 and a host of other ISO standards are responsible for a higher and swift level of interoperability in the front-end communication and signal distribution between smart grid infrastructures such as EVs and the conductive charging spots/stations.
The IEC 63110 by design is complex based on the protocol standard. However, the procedure in its design ensures cybersecurity, interoperability, grid integration and scalability.
The model of the design starts with an interface that allows all the actors in a specific market to interact together. Then, IEC 63110 provides a communication standard that explains these protocols and their interaction to ease the flow of information.
Relationships Between IEC 63110 and OCPP
The OCPP and IEC 63110 are base-level protocol systems needed in V2G for effective communication. A lot of users and enthusiasts might ask: “Should one of them be discarded or can they both co-exist?” While OCPP and IEC 63110 are more alike than we realize, they are unique in their functionalities and specifications.
- The OCPP and IEC 63110 are like siblings with a little more edge over each other. However, they have profound similarities in grid management abilities, payment authentication and authorization (IEC 63100 has more features), energy transfer management and electric vehicles equipment management.
- The OCPP and IEC 63110 both provide similar advantages in eliminating waiting time during integration, and IT challenges. But, more so, they offer active interoperability that is vital for all operators, businesses, property owners and electric vehicle drivers.
- The OCPP and IEC 63110 are the great driving forces for the efficient working condition of conductive charging stations and users (operators).
- OCPP has unique specifications such as authorization of the charging process between the EV and the power grid. Moreover, it is responsible for the authentication and billing process when users pay for the charging service. While OCPP and IEC 63110 have quite a similar function here, some experts believe that the IEC 63110 is an upgrade to the OCPP and has an improved e-mobility interaction and communication system.
- The OCPP has an upgraded version to provide an intelligent charging service. Users can schedule or reserve a charge whenever they want. More so, it is open-sourced and free with no restriction to a single vendor. The IEC 63110 is the latest design of the Joint Working Group (JWG 11) of the IEC Technical Committee established by three European countries (Germany, France and Italy). The ICE 63110 covers the management of EV charging and every other infrastructure associated with it.
Conclusively, the IEC 63110 has quite the edge over the OCPP. Since it is newly designed, it comes with a better topological charging system and grid integration. Furthermore, the support communication system embedded in the IEC 63110 rivals any other design because of the new e-mobility control architecture.
The Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) integration is crucial to the success of the widespread use of electric vehicles and reducing the cost for electricity grid reinforcement while facilitating the implementation of renewable energy resources.
OCPP facilitates the compatibility and communication experience for different entities and equipment to ensure universal support for V2G integration. OCPP can help improve the charging experience for customers, cost-effectiveness, and be the crucial part of a quicker innovation to EV usage.
IEC 63100 would help tackle the gaps in the protocols, test and support the development of these protocols and enhance their improvement.
Electric vehicles are powered solely on electricity from batteries (usually lithium-ion batteries), which have large capacities to store power for a long time. Therefore, a person leaving home with his car fully charged is not likely to get stranded overtime all through the day, and it is almost equivalent to how you would carry a charged smartphone around with confidence. However, this effective storage capacity found in electric vehicles has other applications that I am interested in, related to the stability of the electric power grid.
The power grid consists of distribution and transmission lines, which may look similar but are quite different. Transmission lines move power at very high voltages from where it is generated to distribution substations, closer to where it is needed. Furthermore, the distribution lines convey power at lower voltages to points of demand and consumption, like industries, offices, homes, malls etc.
How do electric vehicles come into play?
I’ll explain in a bit.
Why Is The Stability Of Transmission And Distribution Grids A Point Of Concern/Interest?
In a typical grid, there has to be a constant flow to ensure the longevity of the lines. Well, most of the grids we see today have existed for more than fifty years, and they were not made for the recent renewable energy introductions we have now. Renewable energy and decentralized energy resources are new to the grid and they disrupt the initially planned mode of operation.
Renewable energy sources like wind and solar energy have a stochastic nature; it is not easy to predict the amount of power they would generate at certain times. In Europe, the leading source of power from the renewable energy mix is wind power, which constitutes up to 426 TWh. The market capacity for wind power generation is also projected to be 17 GW by 2022 and 483 GW by 2050, but wind energy supply fluctuates.
Unfortunately, with these projections, it is clear that renewable energy is increasingly popular, and the power generated can best get to the consumers via the existing grid.
In the power grid system, for there to be stability, the amount of power generated has to be consumed at that instant. However, with the fluctuating nature of renewable energy sources, this stability is not easy to achieve without introducing new strategies and techniques.
One of these ways is to integrate electric vehicles into the grid for stability.
This is how:
How We Can Attain Grid Stability With Electric Vehicles
Like I mentioned earlier, electric vehicles have batteries that can be charged at charging stations and are used to power them when in use. However, research has shown that drivers park their cars up to 95% of the day. Essentially, electric vehicles are very effective as energy storage devices as the batteries can get charged and discharged at times when necessary. Interestingly, batteries become used more efficiently for bidirectional charging than when it just gets charged and used even with unidirectional smart charging.
Depending on the amount of power generated in the grid by its sources and the demand, there is peak load, i.e excess demand, and other times off-peak load, i.e lesser demand than the power generated. That is where electric vehicles come into play through smart charging and V2G (Vehicle-to-grid) technologies.
For V2G to run well, smart technologies are in place to enable communication between EVs and the grids. So, intelligently controlled EVs can sell off power to the grid during peak load, while it’s connected to the charger. In the same way, with smart charging, charging is done during off-peak hours, and it is possible to control how much power is used.
The Current Status Of Electric Vehicles In Relation To Grids And What To Expect.
The implementation of V2G has not taken off as much as it should, but the journey to its full use has started. Recently, makers of electric vehicles have been encouraging the use of V2G by having trials for EV users. Consequently, more electric vehicles are now smarter, and their chargers too. Also, applications exist to make the communication between these devices go smoothly without hitches, and this is what V2G needs.
The EV market is growing fast, and the number of electric vehicles is expected to reach up to 140-240 million globally by 2030, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). As more people adopt electric vehicles, the grid operators need to be prepared for the energy demand and dynamics.
V2G for Grid Stability Case Studies
To integrate plug-in or hybrid electric vehicles into the grid, I have seen that we need more than just the technologies. We need agreements to be made by the government, energy utility firms and EV makers. When these agreements are in place, achieving a stable grid with V2G adoption will be easier. There are a number of notable V2G projects ongoing across Europe.
A power firm in Europe, E.ON, has been working with Nissan to ensure development in V2G since 2019, but there is still a lot more work required to become fully adopted with electric vehicles. They successfully deployed twenty (20) V2G chargers in the trial they started, verified on Nissan Cranfield’s site. That first trial examined how participating businesses/offices can gain by generating revenue while giving to the grid.
More recently, they sought for more participants to do the next stage of trials. With the UK funding available, all participants would enjoy incentives and a highly subsidized V2G package. According to the V2G Programme Manager with E.ON UK, this is a step closer to bringing V2G chargers to the market. Before the project started, two NISSAN EVs were already enabled with V2G capabilities, that is, LEAF and e-NV200, and are being used for the trials.
Also, in the Netherlands city of Utrecht, Renault launched a trial in 2019 with 15 Zoe vehicles. This trial was done in collaboration with an electric driving company, We Drive Solar, and an energy supplier in Portugal, Empresa de Electricidade da Madeira. Consequently, more tests were planned for in other countries like France, Sweden, Germany, Switzerland and Denmark.
For this project by Renault, onboarding recharging was used to optimize cost. The pilot schemes are to examine the process and maximize the benefits involved. It was also done to stabilize the grid and encourage more use of solar and wind energy systems. Utrecht trials involve 100 V2G solar-powered cars (Sion cars made by Sono Motors) that have been launched alongside 500 bidirectional public chargers. If all vehicles are plugged in simultaneously, they can supply 1.1 MW to the grids.
A more recent trial by OVO energy featured the deployment of 320 bidirectional chargers, and so far, it has proved successful. A good number of users even increased the times they plug in from just twice a week to every day, knowing the value of V2G. With the V2G tariff, EV users saved up to £8,000 per year. In relation to grid stability, this trial has also shown a lot of potentials. For example, in early November 2020, 150 of OVO’s V2G customers responded when there was a need to stop a power outage. They successfully sabotaged the situation by plugging in their EVs.
Not to undermine the current developments, but the charging standards still have to be improved, though a lot of progress has been made like CHAdeMO. This is because not all brands of EVs and EV chargers have adopted the existing developments. However, if we can integrate enough EVs into the grids, there would be little or no struggles with renewable energy sources giving power to the grid, and this would strike a balance through and through.
This blog is part of a V2X series. Continue to the other blogs in the series.
Despite the many advantages, one of the major doubts about the deployment of V2G technology is that its operation could increase the rate of degradation of the EV’s battery life.
Users believe that as more charging and discharging occurs, the EV battery degradation might be more rapid than when compared with normal use.
Even though the cost of production of batteries is continuously decreasing, it still contributes up to 40% of the total cost of an electric vehicle(BEV).
As a user, your immediate preference will be to elongate the battery life of your EV to reduce the cost of battery replacement. Also, manufacturers of EVs are reluctant to warrant their products for V2G service because of the fear of battery degradation.
Many pieces of research have been done to prove that V2G degrades the battery or otherwise. Therefore, I am writing from the point of view of a V2G technology solution provider and will answer the question to give EV users confidence to participate in V2G activities.
Understanding V2G Services And Its Advantages
Vehicle-to-Grid is a bi-directional interaction between an electric vehicle and an energy distribution grid. This interaction is possible through a connecting system that allows the bi-directional flow of energy and information.
One of the common communication interfaces is called the ISO/IEC 15118 – “an international standard defining a vehicle to grid (V2G) communication interface for bi-directional charging/discharging of electric vehicles.” Another protocol for DC charging and discharging is the CHAdeMO.
With the aid of these V2G communication protocols, an electric vehicle can send its stored energy to the grid and vice versa when the vehicle’s battery pack needs to be charged.
EVs participating in V2G services help boost the efficiency of grids and enhance the reliability and stability of the grid through services such as load balancing, peak shaving, the regulation of frequency, and the provision of support for the incorporation of renewable energy.
Research has shown that drivers park their cars up to 95% of the day. So, instead of energy stakeholders constructing battery banks for these services, EVs have impressive batteries with substantial capacities that we can harness.
But at what cost?
How EV Batteries Life Reduces.
When you consider price and reliability, it is safe to say the battery is one of the most important components of an EV. Therefore, the packaging design and the electrode materials have been thoroughly researched to further enhance battery life longevity and general performance.
During normal use, it has been proven that the quality and efficiency of batteries reduce with time depending on the type of battery in question.
The types of batteries suitable for electric vehicle technology include lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride batteries and lithium-ion batteries, which show substantial advantages in energy density, power density, eco-friendliness, and charging properties.
However, the most preferred for electric vehicle manufacturers is the lithium-ion battery, which has a high energy density strength of over 220Wh/kg. Hence researchers tend to use this battery to establish whether or not V2G services shorten/degrade battery life.
Deductions from research held at Aston University School of Engineering and many other papers show that Lithium plating, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth and chemical decomposition are microscopic phenomena of battery degradation.
Among these factors above, SEI formation is accepted generally as the main process which causes battery degradation. The SEI is generated on the surface of the anode as a result of the electrochemical reduction of the electrolyte, and it is essential for the long-term cyclability of a lithium-ion battery. The SEI is a passivation layer that forms when a liquid electrolyte comes into contact with a negative electrode’s electron-conductive surface (NE). Thus, it has the properties of a solid electrolyte.
These electrochemical reactions indicate a reduction of the battery capacity or available power output and the all-around performance and efficiency of the batteries.
Calendar Ageing and Cycle Ageing in Electric Vehicle Battery.
There are two major perspectives used to measure battery degradation;
- the calendar ageing
- the cycle ageing mechanisms.
Calendar ageing in EV Batteries
Calendar ageing refers to any ageing processes that cause a battery cell to degrade without being subjected to a charge-discharge cycle. It’s a vital element in many lithium-ion battery applications because the working times are much shorter than the idle intervals, like electric vehicles.
Furthermore, degradation due to calendar ageing can be prominent in cycle ageing analyses, especially when cycle depths and current rates are low. The formation of passivation layers at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces is the most common pattern of calendar ageing. It occurs when a battery is at rest – this is when no current is flowing through the battery.
Cycle ageing in EV batteries
When a battery is charged or discharged, it undergoes cyclic ageing. Mechanical strain in the active electrode materials or lithium plating might cause substantial deterioration during cycle ageing. The mechanical stress and strain caused by the insertion and extraction of lithium ions primarily cause structural disordering.
Lithium plating on the negative (graphite) electrode is the most representative cycle ageing mechanism. When the battery is charged at high current rates or at low temperatures, a diffusion limitation of lithium insertion occurs. Instead of being inserted into graphite, lithium might be deposed on the negative electrode in this situation.
Particle cracking and collector corrosion are two further cycling ageing mechanisms in lithium-ion batteries. On the other hand, this type of mechanism is more common in extreme use situations, such as very high current rates or very deep discharges, rather than in normal use conditions.
Are there any relationships between the two battery degradation mechanisms?
In addition, given that battery degradation differs depending on whether the battery is at rest or if a current runs through it, figuring out how the calendar and cycling ageing effects interact is a difficulty. When electric cars are operated, they spend most of their time (95 per cent or more) parked, and their battery’s current rates are relatively low.
Will V2G Degrade your Battery?
According to a study from the University of Warwick, utilizing a battery in a V2G scenario does not necessarily harm its performance — it may even increase it. The researchers devised a V2G technique to minimize degradation after running simulations using a “comprehensive battery degradation model.”
They also discovered that, in certain circumstances, transferring energy to the grid could extend battery life. “Extensive modeling results show that if a daily drive cycle consumes between 21% and 38% state of charge, then discharging 40%–80% of the batteries state of charge to the grid can minimize capacity fade by roughly 6% and power fade by 3% over a three-month period,” the researchers stated.
A case study of the electricity demand for a representative University office building was investigated using smart-grid optimization. According to the findings, the smart-grid formulation can reduce EV battery pack capacity fade by up to 9.1% and power fade by 12.1%.
It was previously considered that using V2G technology caused lithium-ion batteries to degrade more quickly. But, on the other hand, battery degradation is more complicated – and this complexity can be used to extend the life of a battery.
This blog is part of a V2X series. Continue to the other blogs in the series.
V1G, V2G, and V2B/V2H/V2X are all elements of smart charging, though some are a bit more advanced. Smart charging is so because it allows for monitoring and optimizing the charging process via cloud-based technology. A data connection is necessary to intelligently adjust the amount of energy used by the vehicle based on the state of the grid while charging.
While V1G is more of the smart charging of a vehicle in one direction, vehicle-to-everything (V2X) requires several things to work. These include a bidirectional charger, a communication protocol for interactions between the charger and the vehicle, a vehicle with all enablements for V2G, and a good control system.
These requirements are because it involves making use of the electric power in electric vehicles (EVs) for various applications.
Seeing that electric vehicles are projected to grow by 50% in 2030 and 80% in 2050, it is pertinent that we use them efficiently, particularly for the sake of the grids. Smart charging and its elements, such as V1G, fit into the solution that is needed for the efficient use of electric vehicles as seen in the next highlights.
V1G (Unidirectional Smart Charging)
V1G is smart charging in its simplest form, that is, in one direction. Being “smart” implies that it allows EVs to modify charging rates and time dynamically since it links the EV to the station using a data connection. The advantage this presents is the minimized cost of charging. Also, V1G allows the vehicle to communicate what is needed to the charging station using machine learning technologies.
Some other advantages of V1G include safer charging, monitoring of electricity consumption, optimized charging time, and easy locating of charging stations. In addition, it could help you decide to charge when power is cheaper and cleaner, given the information available from the electricity market and system.
With V1G, an EV driver can easily access electricity usage details since sensors measure it and provide up-to-date values to help EV users make better decisions. These highlights far outweigh the disadvantages, if any.
V2B/V2H (Vehicle-to-Building, Vehicle-to-Home)
Vehicle-to-building (V2B) and vehicle-to-home (V2H) are similar in their operations. However, with the developments in renewable energy, the fluctuating production allows for some excess power and sometimes, need for power. To augment this, electric vehicles can be used to receive and give power to homes and buildings.
Beyond the cases of producing renewable energy, the electric vehicle can just be used to supply energy in any case of power outage or blackout. I know this use of electric vehicles may not directly affect the grid, but it creates a locally balanced environment. That is a massive step in the right direction for balancing the grid, after all.
V2B and V2H have not been implemented in many places all over the world, but Tepco, a utility in Japan, is known to have implemented bidirectional charging. Tepco says that 10 Nissan Leafs have enough energy to power 1,000 homes for an hour. That’s a lot of power that can be accessed on wheels.
Vehicle-to-everything technologies initially focused on communication with other objects, such as other vehicles, infrastructure, people and other parts of the traffic system. It achieves this by transferring information from a vehicle to the moving parts of the traffic system. This information moves via a high bandwidth from a vehicle’s sensors and other sources to communicate with other cars and structures.
In 2016, Toyota first introduced automobiles equipped with V2X with a focus on V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure) and V2Vs (Vehicle-to-vehicles). More vehicles with V2X started being launched in 2017, especially in Japan. Most of them are equipped with DRSC (Dedicated Short Range Communication) V2X.
The motivation behind V2X includes better road management, safer driving, energy savings and traffic efficiency. However, we can now use V2X technologies for other various applications, including bidirectional charging. V2H and V2B also leverage this technology to communicate with the receiving end of power.
V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid, Bi-Directional Smart Charging)
Vehicle-to-grid, according to its name, involves a giving of power back to the grids by electric vehicles. This is achieved when the vehicle is capable of bidirectional charging. Also, the V2G communication protocols that support it have to be in place, between the vehicle and the charging station and between the charging station and the control systems.
Vehicle-to-grid is advantageous to the grids to balance it, especially when renewable energy sources have been integrated. Also, it is cost-effective as users can sell excess power from their cars, at a standard price, to power the grids. V2G can also involve throttling the charging rates of the plug-in electric vehicle. These advantages are attractive enough to work with.
V1G, V2H, V2B, V2G, and V2X Relationships
Of these technologies, V1G may seem like the odd one because it is unidirectional, yet it forms the basis for the rest. V2X can only work using smart charging, and it encompasses all bidirectional charging technologies. However, V2G stands out as it is a direct transfer of power from vehicles to grids and not to utilities.
V2H, V2B, and V2X are interrelated as they are practically the same thing in different applications. For V2B, though, the amount of power used differs from that of V2H. The time of use as well is different for homes and businesses/buildings generally.
|Smart charging||Direction of charge available||Stakeholders||Application|
|V1G||Yes||Unidirectional||Single users||To charge EVs under monitored frameworks to optimize time and resources|
|V2B||Yes||Bidirectional||Aggregators, Users, Buildings||To augment the power supply of a building using power in the battery of an EV by means of their connection|
|V2H||Yes||Bidirectional||Single users||To supply a home with power from an EV battery|
|To connect an electric vehicle to everything using sensors that can transfer data|
|V2G||Yes||Bidirectional||All||To give power back to the grids for the sake of stability|
The Future of V1G, V2H, V2B, V2G, and V2X
The leverage of V2X is in how accessible and available it is at precise times. It presents a form of energy storage that favours both the EV market and the grids. It is easy to install in homes and offices for charging.
V2G technology, for example, has been predicted to increase at a fast pace, looking at the market. By 2027, the V2G technology market is projected to reach $17.27 billion, given the high rate of growth of EV charging stations worldwide. The flexibility provided by V2G is also likely to contribute to this growth.
Smart charging in itself is the future of electric vehicle charging. IDC analysts anticipate that cities and governments will be spending $196 billion (£148 billion) on smart development by 2023. When this happens, there would be more smart cities, which would hopefully lead to more implementations of smart charging.
V1G, V2H, V2B, V2G, and V2X may seem like they only entirely exist in the future far away, but it is nearer than you can expect. While it is being implemented in some places already, it would gradually spread all over the world. With the increasing rate of EVs and charging stations and the rising need to implement more environment-friendly solutions, there is no limit to where V2X can impact.
This blog is part of a V2X series. Continue to the other blogs in the series.
V2G (Vehicle-to-grid) communication protocols are standards for the interactions between the Electric Vehicles (EVs) and the grids. Open communication standards like OCPP (Open Charge Point Protocol) allow interoperability and are suitable for V2G technology. They use a common framework and allow anyone in the underlying framework to share information. In doing this, they allow the back-end software of the charging management system to get updates on the status of electric vehicle charging going on at the time.
Launched in 2018, OCPP 2.0 is the latest version of OCPP from the open charge alliance – a group of private and public EV infrastructure companies (160 members as of 2020). The previously popular OCPP 1.6 has been improved to meet the new needs of electric vehicle infrastructure. That is, while OCPP 1.6 is great, OCPP 2.0 is better. Its first adoption, OCPP 2.0.1, was in March 2020 and has proved to be the one for the future.
However, before I begin to talk about the new version of OCPP, you should know a bit about how OCPP operates generally.
How Does OCPP Operate?
The Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) exists between the charging stations (also known as Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment) and the central system. This central system is a back-end software that receives and controls information regarding charging sessions, reservations, and updates. In addition, OCPP 1.6 allows for smart charging, a highly desirable feature for load balancing and other advantages.
Smart charging involves a system where elements of the electric vehicle network, including the EVs, charging stations and charging operators, share data connections and access specific details. All versions of OCPP also use an open platform to connect EVSEs with the cloud-based back-end system to aid communication.
What you should know about OCPP 2.0 V2G Communication Protocol.
OCPP 2.0 is an improvement to OCPP 1.6 and 1.5, which, in itself, is of highly significant importance. While the features of open communication and smart introductions of OCPP 1.6 are still in place, OCPP 2.0 adds more significant changes that welcome the future. Allow me to walk you through five things you should know about this protocol.
1. OCPP 2.0 supports the ISO/IEC 15118 v2g communication protocol
The IEC 15118 protocol allows for easy two-way communication between Electric Vehicles and the charging stations. It also has a feature that allows for automatic identification. So, as a user, you’re free to decide whether to use external identification means (EIM) by using RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) cards or by using the automatic identification system to get identified based on your initial data captured.
You may ask, how does OCPP 2.0 come in as a support for IEC 15118 in this case?
With the EVs’ plug and charge and smart charging requirements in place, OCPP 2.0 allows smooth cooperation. This support is simply in place as it works with IEC 15118 efficiently, and together, they both give grounds for smart charging even though they have not yet been fully adopted.
In addition, the central system can set constraints to the amount of power during a charge transaction for smart charging.
2. Better security arrangements come with OCPP 2.0
OCPP 2.0 is more secure, and this is needed in every smart system to avoid cyber attacks. Unlike OCPP 1.6, it does not require VPN or any other third party for a secure connection. This was formerly necessary for encryption of the entire communication channel, and it posed a risk to the security of the EV charging system. However, using IEC 15118, there is easier identification from the known PKIs (Public Key Infrastructures), which are very secure.
OCPP 2.0 can achieve this because of the new security profiles for authentication, security logging, and event notification.
3. Improved functionalities for smart charging
In an EV charging arrangement, OCPP 2.0 allows for a request for the particular amount of power the charging station needs. Meanwhile, OCPP 1.6 does not allow for this kind of data field that OCPP 2.0 now allows.
Instead, it only allows for the vehicle to give a State of Charge (SoC), telling the percentage of battery it has at the time. This limits a lot of things, especially with the introduction of Vehicle-to-grid communication that has to be bidirectional and specific and smart. While the use of State of Charge is vital, it can be more useful when the charging process is better managed using OCPP 2.0.
4. OCPP 2.0 is reliable, even for the sake of finances
Efficiency is what everyone wants. With OCCP, charging stations are normally independent of vendors since there is a central underlying framework, unlike how it was before OCCPs came on board in 2009. This interoperability that comes with it alone is an advantage, but it’s not the only advantage.
With OCCP, no one gets stuck to one vendor, and in cases of a price increase by the vendors, even financial troubles or bankruptcy, there is a freedom to switch vendors even while using the same charging station.
This is good for the Vehicle-to-grid technology because it allows any EV and any Electric Vehicle Service Equipment to communicate. OCPP 2.0 also keeps the market healthily competitive.
5. OCPP 2.0 allows for flexibility and better device management
With OCPP 2.0, charging stations can be monitored, and this is helpful to their operators who have complex multi-vendor charging stations. Even from the end of an EV driver, the display and messaging features reflect all information they need, such as rates and the likes. This way, we can manage EVs and charging stations more effectively.
OCPP 2.0 is a leap and a significant milestone in the advancement of electric vehicles.
Electric vehicle fleet managers and utilities have been learning about IEC 15118 and moving on to put it to use at a slow pace. However, with the availability and working of OCPP 2.0, the synergy with IEC 15118 for EVs and EVSEs is set to move electric vehicle charging to a better place. IEC 15118 needs OCPP 2.0 to communicate more effectively with the central systems.
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is a means to a greater end for the world of sustainable energy. Even though V2G is not yet prevalent, the structures necessary for communication between grids and electric vehicles have already started growing with advanced technology. It is essential to note that communication protocols that serve as guidelines in their various applications have to be flexible enough to accommodate change constantly.
Communication protocols guide the interactions between two digitally connected entities. In this case, electric vehicles and grids are the entities. Without standards, there is always a gap and disorderliness. Such chaos is not needed in the exchange of data and the facilitation of communication in the application of V2G (Vehicle-to-grid) technology. The IEC 15118 protocol steps in to solve this problem.
V2G technology can only be implemented swiftly and much more if the points of interaction between the two elements, the vehicle, and the grid, recognize each other. You would agree with me that adaptability makes any product or technology, like the advent of electric vehicle usage, more feasible and desirable. The IEC 15118 protocol is one of the other communication protocols but paves the way for a smooth transition in vehicle-grid integration.
The Focus of V2G Communication Protocols
Many concerns come up when it comes to any kind of data exchange. There is a need for the details (like the specifications & unique identity) of a vehicle to be communicated in V2G. Asides from the fact that details may easily be tracked and need a high level of security, the flexibility of the interactions between EVs, charging systems, and grids are highly required for V2G to thrive.
The IEC 15118 started in 2009 for the Vehicle-to-grid Communication Interface to promote autonomous usage. Interestingly, this protocol is still under development, yet it already gives a platform that allows for a broader scope. As V2G communication is needed to be in place for automatic billing and access to the internet, the IEC 15118 protocol gives a form of global compatibility that applies just as well.
IEC 15118 Protocol: What you should know
Of the two main kinds of community protocols (the front-end protocol and the back-end protocol), I would spotlight the IEC 15118 protocol (which is a front-end protocol. That is as a result of its relevance in V2G technology and its application. Also known as the ISO 15118 protocol, it is one of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for electric vehicles (including trucks). It has some interesting sides to it, as I would explain below.
1. More Advanced Communication with IEC 15118
Compared to a similar protocol, like the IEC 61851, the IEC 15118 communication protocol is more advanced. For example, ISO 15118 gives the requirements for charging load management, billing and metering. It thus promotes bi-directional digital communication, which is the basis for V2G communication.
IEC 61851 can only do basic signalling, like indicating readiness for charging and connection status. However, IEC 15118 is applicable for high-level communication, which is an advancement. This places it at the core of EV charging and even V2G interactions. This way, there is better communication and information transfer between the Electric Vehicle and the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE).
2. Versatile Application of IEC 15118 to Wired and Wireless Charging
In its implementation for charging electric vehicles, you can apply IEC 15118 to both wired (AC and DC) and wireless charging. Since V2G applies to various kinds of electric vehicles, this protocol suits it appropriately.
With the current update on part 8 of the IEC 15118 protocol, you would notice an improvement that would allow for wireless connection. Part 8, which is the Physical layer and data link layer requirements for wireless communication, informs the protocol’s versatility.
3. Security via Digital Certification in IEC 1158
The communication between vehicles and grids (via V2G) with the IEC 15118 protocol is more secure. This is a result of the use of digital certificates. In addition, public key infrastructures issue and manage digital certificates. These certificates link people, systems, and keys.
Like passcodes (but more complex), encrypted data is used in IEC 15118 to keep information safe. This way, the limit of insecurities in V2G communication is eliminated. Even digital signatures can be created and used as and when due. If, at any time, for any reason, a digital certificate is no longer trusted, the public key can be reversed. Also, these security features have time limits and make it harder to cheat on the system.
4. Automated Authorization
Using IEC 15118, there is no need to do any other thing at the point of shedding excess power from an electric vehicle to the grid asides from doing the necessary plugging. The automated system allows the system to authenticate the identity of the two sides in communication. It uses different authentication schemes like the Plug and Charge technology, enabling the vehicle to authenticate and identify itself on behalf of the driver.
The use of RFIDs (Radio Frequency Identification) can be aptly applied in the use of IEC 15118 as a means of external identification. Low power radio waves are used in this application to identify the vehicle and automatically carry out authentication.
5. Standard Nature of the IEC 15118 Protocol
ISO/IEC 15118 is a protocol that forms part of the Combined Charging System (CCS) – a group of standards for hardware and software in charging systems. The CCS agrees to use this to enhance charging that can be operated with various specifications.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) also recognizes the IEC 15118 protocol for V2G communication. Being an international body made of different national standards organizations that set standards, the ISO is globally recognized.
With Hive Power’s Flexibility Manager Module, anywhere V2G would be implemented, charging and discharging can be coordinated easily. This is done by maximizing devices that can be remotely controlled under this module. The Hive platform also provides a means of improving the accuracy of energy data and enhancing smart grids.
Generally, the interoperability and openness of IEC 15118 make it fit in as a V2G communication protocol well. Yet, it is not at the level it should be in the market. Moreover, due to the nature of the V2G technology as one which is still under development, the entire structure needs to keep improving to aid more advanced communication between the digitally communicating elements.
Electric vehicles come with a lot of advantages. Emission-free, efficient, and optionally rechargeable, as well as being an amazing transportation means. V2G (Vehicle-to-grid) technology allows plug-in electric vehicles to interact with power grids and supply the grids with excess energy in batteries. The idea of Vehicle-to-grid has existed since the beginning of the twenty-first century, precisely in 1997. The future of V2G technology ties its probability with that of the use of electric vehicles.
I was surprised to find that experts worldwide have scepticism about how feasible V2G technology would be in the future. However, technology is never exactly accepted by all and sundry at the point of inception. The future of V2G technology is still bright as the development of smart grids technologies and the production of PEVs (Plug-in Electrical Vehicles) would tend to stimulate it.
Like science, it would thrive when it works according to the hypothesis and proves itself when it is accepted. I still see the trend of V2G technology taking over the world of plug-in electric vehicles.
Growth and Trends in V2G Technology
In a book by Dr Lance Noel and three others (Vehicle-to-grid, a sociotechnical transition beyond electrical mobility), they highlighted the usefulness of V2G in the electric vehicle industry as one which has the potential of moving the industry forward. This is due to their point of view that V2G technology is an excellent motivation for the EV (Electrical Vehicles) market. I cannot as well agree less. The V2G technology market is growing at a fast pace.
Currently, precedence research tells that the global vehicle-to-grid technology market would have attained up to $17.27 billion by 2027. This was predicted from the high rate of growth of EV charging stations all around the world. In 2019, Europe had the largest share of revenue in the Vehicle-to-grid market with about 36% share.
As many companies are investing more in research and development, I have also observed that the growth rate in EVSEs – Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment revenue has increased globally to up to 80%. I relate with the positive predictions of the future of V2G technology from these trends. They give a better platform for the connection between grids and electric vehicles.
Recent Developments in V2G Technology
Coming down the time train from various industrial ages, it is evident that the current age – artificial intelligence age – speaks of a smart age. The concept of smart cities integrates smart homes, smart vehicles, smart grids, and all smart devices in one. Various attempts have been made to develop the technologies that aid the approaching of smart cities. A major key player among these technologies is the electric vehicle. For continuity, V2G technology has continually been researched and is hoped to come closer to reality.
Some remarkable developments in V2G technology I have observed in the past five years include:
- Development of smart grids for electricity and load management – This allows for regulations that would aid apt control in the charging and discharging of electric batteries. EV owners can push the power from the batteries back to the grid and vice versa (in the normal charging situation – G2V, Grid-to-Vehicle). Electric utilities already maximize power by using smart grids, which is a step toward promoting V2G technology.
- Development of batteries and charging systems with the bidirectional operation – In September 2020, Tesla unveiled a new EV battery design that allows for adaptation to the V2G technology. However, it was given that the production of new batteries will start around 2022 and 2023.
Despite speculations about when it would start being applied, this development gives a picture of readiness for change. These new batteries cost about 56% less than the former batteries and store up to 380 Wh/kg. The capacity increases, and the cost decreases. The use of stationary storage facilities poses threats and has its advantages. Yet, we should explore the concept of mobile power storage by virtue of the V2G technology. I believe we can all do more rather than box ourselves with the norm.
Applications in the Future of V2G Technology
The application of V2G technology is major to power grids. This can then be applied in the regular diverse applications. Consequently, the best way to maximize V2G technology is by utilizing it alongside smart grids.
We can apply V2G technology to power homes as well. It can serve as a service that is more consumer-controlled. The same way it is connected to public grids or community grids, your EV can be channelled to provide the power needed from time to time in your homes.
A solar-powered car can provide power to your home when the battery is full or the grid during high demand using the V2G technology. Its application in this area is even essential. This is because temporary storage and proper control of excess power are necessary to avoid fluctuations. What better use than to channel the stored energy to grids where it is needed. The same goes for cars with rechargeable batteries and those with inbuilt generators. V2G technology makes power distribution and production better.
The Next Ten Years – Engineering Advancements to Come in the Future of V2G Technology
A two-sided energy flow idea gives a picture of what the future holds for V2G technology – flow between energy generation and distribution corporations and consumers. V2G technology is on the verge of becoming more widely accepted as electric vehicles are rapidly increasing worldwide. Electric vehicles recorded a 40% increase in yearly sales in 2019 and have continued to grow. To combat the issue of peak demand, you can expect V2G technology to be developed practically and increasingly adopted before 2030.
As technology continues to advance, I expect that batteries will get charged faster, leading to more demand from the grids. As a result, there would be a greater need to balance grid systems, and V2G technology can address most of the problems.
The world would need renewable energy and power sources more than before due to apparent reasons – climate change effects and gas emissions from fossil-fuel-generated power, consequently impacting the grids and their management. V2G technology would contribute to intervening aptly to avert consequences, and I look forward to its full utilization.