Let’s start with a defining statement for microgrid systems; they are self-sufficient energy systems that cater to energy needs for a small geographical area, they can have one or more kinds of energy sources such as solar panels, heat sources or wind turbines and even contain an energy storage solution, for example, batteries.
Their primary purpose is to produce sustainable power for an allocated area. These areas can be hospitals, campuses, business centres and small neighbourhoods. Microgrid systems are discussed in association with renewable energy, mainly because that is the type of energy being developed in recent years. They happen to do better than large scale grids that cater to larger populations from fossil fuel sources and are becoming increasingly accepted.
Microgrids work in an interconnected way, providing energy to buildings in the form of electricity, cooling and heating through software and digital control systems. Its major characteristics include:
- being local, which means it provides its services to nearby customers
- being independent, which means it can be disconnected from its central grid yet still function at 100%, this comes in handy in times of central outages and lastly
- being intelligent, which is a result of advanced software and management systems.
With the efficiency of microgrids, there is a pertinent need to measure their energy demand and supply, which is where Demand-Side Management comes in.
What is Demand-Side Management (DSM)?
Demand-Side Management can be explained as the “group of actions designed to efficiently manage a site’s energy consumption to cut costs incurred for the supply of electrical energy, from grid charges and general system charges, including taxes” according to Enel X. These actions are necessary for optimising energy use and saving costs on electricity charges by understanding the overall consumption costs, the amount of time this consumption occurs, and the supply and connection parameters.
Demand-Side Management is enshrined in the instability of grid systems around the world since renewable energy sources are highly penetrable including the decentralisation of their production, these cause innumerable disruptions on the microgrids and grid management services, a balance is therefore needed.
The demand and supply balance is a significant worry; the amount of energy created and fed into the grids has to match the consumption habits. Grid managers can now create energy management systems to offer grid services that are paid for, which in turn increase the costs for the electrical system.
In-depth on-site analysis has to be carried out on individual microgrid sites to properly engage in Demand-Side Management to ascertain the generation and consumption habits of customers.
All the measures used under Demand-Side Management are implemented on the generation side of the energy meter to modify consumption patterns and enable efficiency in using and managing energy loads. The measures don’t only involve energy efficiency but also something else called Demand Response (DR).
Demand Response is a technique that microgrid managers use to balance out sudden surges or plummets in consumers’ consumption of energy. DSM program participation, for now, can be voluntary or mandatory for consumers, for those that decide to volunteer, there are attractive incentives to encourage more participation. Some regulations have been introduced by most energy (electricity specifically) regulators that have encouraged the integration of Demand-Side Management at their facilities, an attempt at a level playing field for DSM.
What are the Advantages of DSM?
As referenced earlier, the major advantage of Demand-Side Management is saving and reducing unnecessary energy losses. These are the direct benefits. The indirect benefits include reducing the frequency of blackouts and the mitigation of emergencies that have to do with the energy systems.
To understand the advantages and disadvantages of DSM, it is imperative to compare it to other alternatives (Supply-Side Alternatives) such as energy generated via renewable energy, the power generated via fossil fuels, load shedding and peak power plants. It is imperative to note that Supply-Side Management deals with energy management on the other side of the meter regarding supply, the polar opposite of DSM.
|Energy via Renewable Sources||
|Energy via Fossil fuels||
|Peak Power Plants||
Advantages and disadvantages of DSM, in comparison to other alternatives. Source: Science direct
Here is a comparison of DSM’s advantages from the consumers’ perspective (customers and society) and power utilities. Source: Science Direct
|Reduced cost of operations||Energy bills are reduced due to energy-efficient equipment.||Greenhouse gasses reduction because fossil fuel power plant constructions aren’t needed|
|Reduced expenses on building power plants, costs of transmission and distribution||Power cuts are reduced, and the power supply is more reliable and stable.||Power distribution is equitable due to less disruption of power|
|Operations run efficiently||Customer satisfaction and reduced maintenance costs for energy-efficient appliances||The promotion and development of sustainable energy and efficiency in the conversion of renewable energy sources|
Demand-Side Management with Microgrids allows grid managers to observe how both systems perform in the transformation of conventional microgrids to those that run on renewable energy and how the Management of demand-side can help with the instability of renewable energy sources; how they can work with renewable energy storage systems and how they can be improved on for efficient utilisation and consumption by customers. Our Community Manager module is integrated with blockchain technology that can enable you to utilise DMS effectively and efficiently.
For a few decades, the idea of creating a faster, more decentralised web technology system which is less dependent on human interference has been a defining factor for database innovations, cue in the blockchain database, which is what cryptocurrencies are run on.
However, that is not the only use of this blockchain technology; renewable energy innovators know this. Implementing this new form of technology to execute contracts smartly to help manage energy needs seems to be the way forward.
The basic idea of the blockchain database technology is that data is introduced into a block with a specified intake capacity. Once that capacity is reached, data is rerouted to a new block that is continuously chained to the previous one. This is done chronologically so that whatever data comes in first is retained first.
The blockchain database is most commonly used to store information as a ledger of transactions for now, but many more aspects of this technology currently remain unexplored. Data entered into decentralised blockchains cannot be reversed, and so they can be view by anyone and are not controlled by any single entity.
Blockchain technology deals with the issues of security and trust in several ways. The major one is its almost impossible allowance for alteration without consensus due to hash codes’ chain reaction. Each block has created these hash codes, with the codes of the previous block and timestamps getting stored in the block following it continuously.
The ultimate goal is to create a database where digital information can be recorded and distributed without the possibility of this information being altered or edited yet remaining completely accessible.
How Does Smart Contract Work?
So far, understanding the blockchain technology has been simple enough, so will smart contracts.
These are contracts that can be digitally executed when predetermined terms and conditions are met. They are lines of code that have been previously embedded to carry out an agreed-upon command when triggered.
According to IBM blogs “The benefits of smart contracts are most apparent in business collaborations, in which they are typically used to enforce some type of agreement so that all participants can be certain of the outcome without an intermediary’s involvement.”
To wholly understand how smart contracts work here is an example. suppose you’ve ever gone through the hassle of buying a new home or getting a loan to start a business and have gotten easily turned off by all the hoops, checks and rechecks you have to be put through to get a nod from your service provider before the actual process begins. In that case, you’ll understand the stress of the situation which can drag on for months at a time, leaving you in more distress than when you started. Well, smart contracts cut out all that hassle. You can almost liken it to switching from a 1994 Macintosh to a 2021 smartwatch.
Entering and re-entering personal information, verifying identity, interacting with different intermediaries, and unnecessary fees and commissions at every step are entirely removed in smart contracts. So this means there are less third party interferences and much smoother executions of contract agreements where all parties are abreast of all details, changes and conclusions as they occur. A huge preference for companies and organisations alike.
How Can Blockchain Smart Contracts Improve The Energy Sector?
With energy evolving before our eyes from the era of fossil fuels and their effects on the earth to renewable energy sources and energy storage and management, it would be wise to seek out an innovative way of reducing the hassle of the management aspect with the blockchain technology and smart contracts.
Bridging the trust gap is a critical factor of smart contracts. If your information is already stored on the blockchain, it is readily available for review and decisions can be made about agreements, payments and deals within shorter periods.
Here are some key benefits of smart contracts:
- Trust: because Smart contracts work with preinstalled code they are executed once predetermined rules are adhered to without third party involvement and, transparency is evident, all information is shared with involved participants
- Security: blockchain technology works with code, all data is encrypted making it increasingly difficult for hackers to have a field day because all records are linked to previous and subsequent records with time stamps and hash codes making any alteration completely affect the whole database, to change anything would involve changing all the information on the blockchain
- Accuracy: without excessive human interference the execution of smart contract orders happens seamlessly and according to exact requests entered into the blockchain, so there is less of a possibility of human error
- Speed: information on the blockchain is automated saving you the stress of unending paperwork or manually correcting and filling documents every time a contract is needed, it does the job in half the time traditional contracts would take
- Immutability: in blockchain, more blocks can always be added but not removed, so records of every transaction are permanent, this increases trust between all participants
- Cost-saving: with the expulsion of unnecessary intermediaries less money will be needed to complete agreements or execute contracts, this will only happen when all other benefits are fulfilled and trusted
Smart contracts are executed through codes that follow the “if/when/then” statements stored on the blockchain database. In the energy sector accuracy, trust, security and saving cost is paramount, and these are the major advantages of smart contracts linked to the blockchain.
In contemporary energy management systems, which usually involve the generation of orders, trade compliance, managing orders, price delivery, exchange execution and settlement accounting, are all time-consuming. The lack of flexibility allows for too many complications tying in several intermediaries.
As a grid operator, smart contracts and decentralised software guaranteed by blockchain technologies can be utilised to create a seamless, secure and efficiently distributed energy system promising to solve at least 80% of these highlighted pitfalls.
One of the reasons for the high popularity of cryptocurrencies is that they allow a decentralized economic system. This point is unanimously considered pivotal in the crypto world, where the worst insult for a project is calling it ‘centralized’. However, the definition of decentralization is often hardly understood. Even worse, a recent study shows that cryptocurrencies are not so decentralized as one might think, considering that the top four miners in Bitcoin and the top three miners in Ethereum control more than 50% of the hash rate.
Decentralization is often explained in terms of the communication architecture of a network, and a distinction is usually made between decentralized and distributed networks. This very famous picture explains the differences eloquently:
The picture is somehow self-explanatory, but we can try to give a tentative definition of the three architectures:
- centralized architecture: information passes from a single node
- decentralized architectures: not all information passes from a single node
- distributed architectures: nodes communicate only with their neighbors
This (very personal) definition makes distributed architectures a subclass of decentralized architectures.
This picture was firstly published in 1964 by Paul Baran, a pioneer in the field of computer networks. When Baran published his work, he was considering distributed networks for increasing the resilience of the national communication structure in the context of a possible atomic war:
…it can be shown that highly survivable system structures can be built, even in the thermonuclear era
— Baran, Paul. “On distributed communications networks.” IEEE transactions on Communications Systems 12.1 (1964): 1–9.
From this point of view, in which the communication network is operated by a trusted entity (the government) and the architecture has the only purpose to guarantee communication, there is no further need to consider decentralization under other aspects. In this post on the meaning of decentralization, Vitalik Buterin explains why, for cryptocurrencies and distributed ledger technologies, there is the need to expand the definition of the decentralization grade of a system.
Briefly speaking, three key aspects can be considered:
- architectural decentralization: this coincides with the definition given by Baran. The system should be geographically dislocated in order to be robust against malicious attacks. The implicit assumption is that attacker’s costs are sublinear: destroying a very big central unit is cheaper than destroying thousands of smaller dislocated communication units.
- political decentralization: decisions concerning the protocols running the network should be made by several individuals/organizations with no concurrent interests in manipulating the network. This aspect is important once we exit from a ‘us’ against ‘them’ mind setting, in which the network operator is trusted and the system must be protected against outsider’s attacks. Note that in the case of cryptocurrencies cartels formation is completely expected — Vlad Zamfir. The History of Casper — Chapter 4.
- logical decentralization: this concerns the ‘state’ of the system, where ‘state’ means all the data available through the network. The bittorrent platform is logically decentralized, since the network’s data is stored by the peers, each of them storing only a part of the whole available data. The Ethereum network, and DLTs in general, are logically centralized, since it’s desirable that all the peers see a coherent (the same) network state at any time. This coherency comes at the cost of highly redundant data structures and at the course of the CAP theorem: if the system gets partitioned, only one property among consistency and availability can be guaranteed.
Now that we have a good grasp on the meaning of, and problems connected to, (de)centralized networks, we can start to discuss decentralized architectures for energy markets.
More and more renewables are being installed in the distribution grid, especially photovoltaics. Solar panels are highly stochastic energy sources with deep volatility. This volatility calls for an increased flexibility of the demand and creates a sweet spot for the creation of energy communities implementing local energy markets. These markets will have 3 kinds of participants:
- Local producers, who can sell their excess energy at higher prices
- Consumers with flexible loads (e.g. water heaters, heat pumps, EV chargers), who can get a discount for load shifting
- Battery owners, who can sell their storage capability
These three actors could have different motivations in participating to such energy community, among which:
- A reduction of their electricity bills thanks to the increased self-consumption of the community. The energy communities will also be able to sell their flexibility to distribution system operators, generating additional profits for their members.
- An increase in the share of locally produced clean energy that they consume.
Let us focus on the specific problem of the choice of the architecture for such a market design.
First of all, we don’t have to start from scratch, the electrical grid is also a network with its own architecture. The existing Infrastructure is massive. It was developed by billions of dollars and can be divided essentially into:
- Electrical transmission and distribution network (cables, transformers, capacitor banks, FACTS, etc…)
- Communication infrastructure for metering and control (PLC, optical fibers, etc.)
The network architecture of the electric power grid is also peculiar. In particular, it is divided into different voltage levels. The choice of the voltage level is a function of:
- The distance to be covered
- The amount of power that needs to be transported
Per unit of length high voltage lines are more expensive than medium and low voltage ones, but the amount of power they can transport and the distance they can cover is much higher, thanks to lower losses. Indeed, raising the voltage by a factor of 10 reduces the current by a corresponding factor of 10 and therefore the RI² losses by a factor of 100.
In distribution systems, once the electricity approaches the point of consumption the voltage is gradually decreased thereby decreasing the cost of the lines and reducing the possible dangers in case of a short circuit.
In the above figure, we can see the high voltage (HV) and medium voltage (MV) lines in the region around Hive Power’s headquarter, ranging from 380 kV (red lines) to 50 kV (blue lines).
The low voltage (LV) network, which is much more ubiquitous, like the one shown in the above figure. In the most common case, the topology of the low voltage network is radial, that means it has a simple tree-like structure.
This structure naturally partitions the system. From the physical point of view, the effects of a LV network on the upper MV level, can be taken into account only by means of the total power at the transformer. In other words, it is not required to know the power consumption of all the buildings in the LV network at a given time to effectively control the MV level, nor it is required that a prosumer located in the LV A knows about all the energy produced or consumed by all the prosumers in the LV B to effectively exchange energy.
And now a very important point:
“The mechanism design of new energy markets must explicitly consider the effect of traded energy on the electrical grid. The energy prices must reflect the state of the grid.”
This point is essential for understanding how we view the market and its communication infrastructure. In the presence of distributed generation from renewable energy, e.g. PV, the power production gets highly synchronized. This synchronization is a possible hazard for the electrical grid, since it can overload electrical lines. Furthermore, power production from renewable energies is highly volatile, influencing the local power quality.
New energy markets are in charge of mitigating the effect of an increasing penetration of renewable generators in the electric grid. Common view among the scientific community is that this could be done by means of demand response programs, in which the energy price is changed dynamically, based on the state of the grid.
These considerations lead us to analyze another sub-class of decentralized architectures, which is a very good candidate for decentralized energy markets: hierarchical structures. Hierarchical structures are essentially tree-like structures, in which each node can be a terminal or a branching node. Terminal nodes are the ‘leaves’ of the tree, and have no downwards connections. In our energy markets, terminal nodes are single prosumers.
The picture above depicts an example of a hierarchical structure, in which the blue terminal nodes with a same parent node, are gathered together in a group. Note that this structure is sort of fractal, that is, a group can be seen as a single terminal node when seen from the upper level.
Back to the energy markets and decentralized systems!
How does this architecture fit into the aforementioned classification, and why does it make sense for decentralized energy markets? Let’s reconsider each point one by one:
- architecture: the architecture is geographically decentralized, but not fully distributed. That is, not all the nodes are equally important, from the point of view of an attacker which would like to make the whole system unavailable. Consider anyway that it is true also for the electric system. Furthermore, and more importantly, remember that the groups are decoupled, physically and logically. This means that, if for some reasons communication with the root node (the one located at the top level), is lost, prosumers in the communities in the lower levels can still effectively trade energy among peers in the same community.
- political: the hierarchical architecture make the branching nodes pivotal for the energy market to work. This empowers the owners of the branching nodes, with respect to simple prosumers. In order to eliminate this issue, we can introduce a governance system regulated by smart contracts.
- logical: the hierarchical architecture does not influence logical (de)centralization per se. Anyway, remember that the system we want to operate is decoupled, and physical effects can be taken into account by means of aggregated power on upper levels. That is, both energy trading and grid control are possible if information is aggregated at each branch of the structure. This aggregation would both avoid unnecessary information flows and preserve the privacy of the prosumers: only aggregated information about energy consumption is available at higher levels of the structure; furthermore, even prosumers belonging to the same groups have only aggregated informations about each others.
Hierarchical structures have also another peculiar aspect which is strictly related to mechanism design, a field of economics and game theory which aims at building market rules that induce a desired effect on the market equilibria. For instance, the CASPER protocol of Ethereum is seen by its creators as the result of applying mechanism design to cryptoeconomy.
Designing a market that turns competition into cooperation
One of the most celebrated outcomes of mechanism design is the revelation principle, that states that:
If the market is incentive compatible, we can restrict the study to the situation in which each participant is willing to disclose its private information.
This means that no agents would have incentives in lying about their power forecasts nor expected utility of using a certain amount of energy. Let’s do an example to clarify the implications.
Consider that each market player would adopt an optimal strategy (in terms of outcomes) given his private information. A player could lie in reporting his private information if he finds he has some advantages in doing so. For example, imagine we have designed a market in which prosumers pay a price proportional to their consumption and, if they consume more than the average, they pay an additional fee. If prosumer A declares he’s going to consume a lot of energy in the next market period, the other prosumers could increase their consumption plans, since they believe to be under-the-average consumers. In the next step, prosumer A consumes much less than the one he had previously declared, but there is no time for the other prosumers to synchronize again with updated information. As a result, A is now an under-the-average consumer. What is happened is that A, lying about his private information, has prevented the risk of paying the additional fee, to the detriment of the others.
How can this be avoided? In the simplest form, prosumers (leaf nodes) can agree to communicate their private information to a super-partes entity (their parent node), which would play the optimal strategy for them. Finding the optimal strategy generally involves solving a pre-defined optimization problem. The important thing is that each prosumers has previously agreed on how this optimal strategy is found, and that all of them consider the super-partes entity as trustful. In this case, prosumers have no interests in lying, since doing so they would incur in a payoff reduction, by definition!
In view of the above mentioned benefits, at Hive Power we decided to design our distributed energy market platform making use of aggregators. Of course these aggregators should either be trusted or, even better, auditable.
In my next posts I will discuss how we will:
- model the market in a dynamic and stochastic setting
- take into account grid constraints
- preserve user privacy
I will also discuss alternative solutions for the intra-group communication. Stay tuned!
At Hive Power we are enabling the creation of energy sharing communities where all participants are guaranteed to benefit from the participation, reaching at the same time a technical and financial optimum for the whole community.
In the latter years the world faced an amazing adoption of renewable energy sources, mainly solar and wind. Initially, the rapid advancement of these technologies was driven by strong incentive programs, first in Europe and therefore in the rest of the world; in parallel, technical improvements and economies of scale of manufacturers, mainly Asian, have allowed a rapid decline of renewable electricity costs.
Today, in different parts of the world, renewable energies are already cheaper than fossil fuels, but there are several cases where their adoption can be stalled by uncertain self-consumption rates of the energy produced. In fact, with current tariffs scheme, a very important factor for calculating the financial return of a new photovoltaic plant is the percentage of self-consumption. This is due to the big difference between the prices of energy purchased and sold to the local network, so without a significant energy consumption during the sunny hours, the majority of the energy produced is injected to the grid. This asynchrony can make solar not convenient.
Example of mismatch between solar energy production and house’s demand
New energy exchange models
To change this scenario, new energy exchange models are needed, which should encourage users to a more rational use of energy at the local level, introducing a new simple and cheap billing scheme. The natural candidate to optimize decentralized energy exchange processes is the blockchain, a decentralized technology based on distributed databases, which allows users to sign contracts and make payments with negligible marginal cost, all with a high assurance of reliability and without a central body. Blockchain technology and new business models that stimulate the local energy exchange — for example between neighbours or business entities in the same district — can facilitate the diffusion of photovoltaic plants and optimize the distribution and use of batteries, that will have a prominent role in the coming years.
A number of start-ups and big utilities are moving towards this new scenario, some with proprietary systems that are a bit in contrast with the distributed market logic, others trying to create an open platform that can integrate components from third parties. These models need also to couple with different use cases, such as micro grids, self consumption communities, condominiums and low voltage district grids.
An automated and reliable future
Additional factors that will encourage the use of smart energy management technologies at local level are the physical constraints of the power grid. Copper cables connecting residential, commercial and industrial areas could face issues in the future, causing a new wave of renovation costs for the electric grids. To prevent this regrettable future, new market models should be designed to encourage the users to use (and store) energy helping the power grid to maintain voltage and frequency within safety range. All these mechanisms will be dominated by artificial intelligence algorithms, so no effort will be required to the user, these new smart tools will work in what many already call “machine economy”.
At Hive Power we are enabling the creation of energy sharing communities where all participants are guaranteed to benefit from the participation, reaching at the same time a technical and financial optimum for the whole community.
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The power sector is facing a paradigm change, moving from a centralized approach with big power plants (hydro, coal, gas and nuclear) leading the energy market to a decentralized scenario adopting distributed energy resources (DER), such as solar and wind.
In this picture, a new actor is emerging: the prosumer, i.e. households or organizations which at times produce surplus energy and feed it into the local distribution network; whilst at other times (when their energy requirements outstrip their own production of it) they consume that same energy from the grid. DERs are by their nature distributed and easily accessible, so accessible that even a single residential consumer can install a small solar power plant and become a prosumer.
The transition to a prosumer-driven electrical grid can be quite bumpy¹. The lack of a centralized planning and the increase of intermittent electricity production in the lower levels of the grid raise the stress on the electrical distribution grid and can lead to severe power quality problems, while distribution system operators (DSOs) need to cope with these new issues.
Though many utilities rightly see the impending arrival of solar-plus-battery grid parity as a threat, they could also see such systems as an opportunity to add value to the grid and their business models. The important next question is how utilities might adjust their existing business models or adopt new business models — either within existing regulatory frameworks or under an evolved regulatory landscape — to tap into and maximize new sources of value that build the best electricity system of the future at lowest cost to serve customers and society.
Rocky Mountain Institute
These problems are further emphasized by the increase of electricity consumption driven by the electrification of heat generation (heat pumps) and mobility (electric vehicles), which will tend to further increase power excursions in the distribution grid.
To overcome this problem significant investments in the grid infrastructure are expected. This could initiate a so called business “death spiral”², or “grid defection”³. Prosumers reduce their regular power consumption from the central grid in favor of self-produced power. Besides they can install batteries to further increase their energy independence. Reasonably, these customers will still depend on the central grid for emergency or peak use, so electric utilities will have to operate their costly infrastructure and power-generating capabilities even as revenues from consumption decline.
We believe this bleak scenario is not the future we want. A future with a widening gap between autarkic prosumers, almost disconnected from the rest of the grid, and simple consumers forced to pay for a more expensive and inefficient grid.
On the contrary, the future electrical grid should be characterized by an increase of energy sharing between prosumers, consumers and electric utilities, optimizing the energy resource and the usage of the infrastructure. In several countries, the current unbundled situation allows the end-users to freely choose their energy supplier.
In this context, enabling technologies like blockchain, and more specifically Ethereum, will allow decentralized prosumers to safely buy and sell electricity to each other at negligible marginal costs. New aggregators exploiting this technology can act as energy suppliers and compete in the global market. In this context, distributed energy storage systems (DESS) could also participate to the energy market and thanks to their high flexibility they could quickly respond to dynamic price signals. This represents a big opportunity of cost reduction for the end user.
Today we present the Hive Power platform, a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO). The goal of Hive Power is to create energy sharing communities where all participants are guaranteed to benefit from the participation, reaching at the same time a technical and financial optimum for the whole community.
This is achieved by devising a mathematically sound market mechanism that incentives the participants to collaborate with each other, coordinating their production and consumption. In contrast to other energy sharing market schemes, the Hive Power platform takes also in account technical aspects, such as cables power rating and voltage limits in order to reach a multi objective optimal solution.
By using the Hive Power platform users are empowered to create decentralized energy communities. The scope and the size of these communities can be quite heterogeneous.
The first application of Hive Power will be the creation of self-consumption communities (SCC) on a condominium, where the members of the community consume together the produced solar electricity from their own roof by increasing their energy autarky.
Starting from this initial application, Hive Power will grow in size by including any kind of producers and consumers in the low voltage electrical grid in cooperation with DSOs.
Hive Power will also support micro-grid communities, where the connection to the main grid is not ensured continuously and the requirements of technical and financial operation are strict.
We believe Hive Power is perfectly tailored to the current grid transition, enabling a safe and cost effective operation of the electrical grid by ensuring a fair and resilient energy market for all actors involved.
We are just getting started and we are really excited for the future ahead of us.
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Learn more about Hive Power:
- Perez-Arriaga, C. Knittle, and M. E. Initiative, “Utility of the future: An mit energy initiative response to an industry in transition.”, http://energy.mit.edu/publication/utility-future-report, 2016.
- P. Bronski, J. Creyts, L. Guccione, M. Madrazo, J. Mandel, B. Rader, D. Seif, P. Lilienthal, J. Glassmire, J. Abromowitz, et al., “The economics of grid defection: When and where distributed solar generation plus storage competes with traditional utility service,” Rocky Mountain Institute, pp. 1-73, 2014.
- The Economist Group Limited, “A world turned upside down.” https://goo.gl/hWu16z, 2017