Multi-level Demand Response

A paradigm shift in the Electric Power Distribution is nowadays widely recognized.
Some of the factors involved are:

Distributed generation technology, particularly PV, is at a financial competitiveness tipping point

Private/personal electric mobility is incepting, capital from the automotive industry is starting to flow

Energy storage solutions benefit from a decades-long history of continuous improvement of the technology, lately boosted by electric mobility

These updates in the rules of the game require a swift reaction from the industry. The pure, feed-forward, top-down model of the electric network involving central generation and peripheral consumption is not sufficient anymore.

Mulder, envisioning coordination.

The final consequence is a call for local coordination among agents in the grid and for an intelligent demand response. This comes with a burden of nontrivial control-theoretic questions to answer.

The common denominator of all frameworks for demand response is distrubuted optimization, given the unique scalability properties it can offer.

However, a realistic deployment scenario must take into account additional challenges:

User privacy

Fault tolerance


Grid constraints